Can a file be authenticated if it did not have a hash calculated when collected?

YES: Hashing a file alone is a robust method of confirming file integrity, but digital files without an accompanying hash checksum can be authenticated in other ways. Authentication of a digital file for purposes of digital forensics may be different from authentication required by rules governing admission of evidence in a judicial proceeding. (July 18, 2017). SWGDE Collection of Digital and Multimedia Evidence Myths vs Facts. Retrieved from

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